The following factors pose a serious threat, in varying degrees, to the existence of the wildlife of the National Park.
The Park has always been susceptible to rhino poaching owing to false beliefs associated with the horn. The annual number of poaching incidents in the Park since 1991 is shown at Annexure S.N. 6.
Retaliatory tiger killings
The National Park has a network of 40 anti-poaching camps well distributed over the entire area. The risk of poaching and the concentration of the flagship species of the Park i.e. Rhinoceros and Tiger determine the location of these camps. Armed guards are permanently stationed in these camps.
Biotic interference in fringe areas
This takes place largely in the form of cattle grazing owing to porous nature of the Park boundary. This leads to degradation of the habitat and makes the wild animals prone to various diseases of the domesticated animals.
Invasion of grasslands by trees
Profuse growth of trees such as Semul tends to invade the grasslands leading to shrinkage of the habitat of rhinoceros.
Spreading of invasive weed species
Mimosa and Mikania have occupied several areas in the Park degrading the habitat of rhinoceros and other herbivores.
Siltation of wetlands
Deposition of silt due to floods creates a situation of artificial scarcity of water for rhinos and other mammals.
Although the Park rarely witnesses high floods, absence of sufficient highlands in the Park leads to death of rhino calves and deer during those times.
Choking of water bodies by aquatic weeds
Aquatic weeds like water hyacinth choke the crucial water bodies of the Park which makes wallowing difficult for the rhinoceros and it also repels the birds.
Erosion in the southern, south-western and eastern part
A considerable area has been eroded by the Brahmaputra and Dhansiri River in southern, south-western and eastern part of the Park over the years leading to fragmentation of habitat.
Insularity of the Park
The Park is not contiguous to any other forest or Protected Area which hinders migration of populations and becomes a limiting factor in the gene flow of the species. However, a tiger corridor exists towards Kaziranga.